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by Iwao Peter Sano
University of Nebraska Press 1999
photos, illustrations, maps
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|1,000 Days in Siberia
The Odyssey of a Japanese-American POW
Iwao Peter Sano was born in Brawley, California in 1924 a Nisei as youth in America, he faces opportunity and prejudices. Sent to Japan in 1939 to become an adopted son to his childless aunt and uncle at age fifteen. Also an outsider in Japan because he can speak little of the language before beginning high school as the Pacific war unfolded while his parents back in America were sent to an internment camp. In Tokyo, he experiences the "Doolittle Raid" on April 18, 1942, then wartime shortages against Japan and Boeing B-29 Superfortress raids during 1944–1945.
On March 1, 1945 he was drafted into the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) and hastily trained, including practice serving as a "human bomb" to attach a pole charge to an enemy tank. Less than two weeks later, he and other trainees were transported to via Korea to Manchuria and was assigned to the Kwantung Army, 118th Heavy Artillery Regiment based at Hailar, but the unit had severe shortages of fuel and equipment. In the last days of the war, they were attempting to dig caves by hand to conceal their guns.
When the Soviet Union declared war on Japan and attacked Manchuria in August 1945, Sano's first view of the enemy was a lone tank performing reconnaissance spotted in the distance. Taken aboard a train to Chichihaerh in central Manchuria, the Japanese were told to leave their rifles and bayonets, and instructed to begin marching to a prisoner camp. The next day, they saw Soviet troops who waved to them, driving American trucks loaded with war booty from Manchuria.
Arriving at the prison camp began Sano's life in Russian captivity. First, he was transported to Siberia aboard a train to Krasnoyarsk Camp 5. Prisoners were forced to unload coal cars and work in a factory. Laboring on long shifts and fed only basic rations, the Japanese maintained their Army ranks and hierarchy even as prisoners. Their lot was nearly identical to the Russians guarding them, who had little food themselves, and were mostly illiterate. Quickly, the Japanese learned how to trick their captors into avoiding heavy work or slow down tasks. Some resented prisoners collaborated with the Soviets or exploited the weaker prisoners for better rations or privileges.
Winter in Siberia was the worst, with temperatures plummeting, work continues. Many prisoners became sick, including Sano who was hospitalized for several months. Afterwards, he was assigned to a collective farm where the work for a summer and found food more plentiful and guards who were less strict.
Lastly, Sano was among a group of 200 prisoners assigned to work in the coal mines at Stalinsk (Novokuznets) in the Kuzbas mountains. Laboring in dangerous conditions mining coal moral plummeted. At the mines, they also met German prisoners who were despised by the Russians. Attempts were made to indoctrinate the Japanese into Communism with special classes and even a Japanese language newspaper that included propaganda about the American occupation of Japan.
After two years and nine months in captivity, Sano's group was schedule for repatriation and was taken by train eastward to Nakhodka near Vladivostok, before finally returning to occupied Japan. Arriving at his adopted parents home, they are surprised to see him back from the dead. Searching for work, he is employed by the occupation forces because of his English, and finally returns to the United States in 1952.
Review by Justin Taylan
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