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    Russia (Russian Federation, Soviet Union, USSR)  
Location
Russia spans from eastern Europe across Asia to the north Pacific Ocean. During World War II, known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or Soviet Union. In the far east, borders Mongolia and China. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union on December 26, 1991, officially known as the Russian Federation or simply Russia.

Wartime History
During the 1930's the poorly defined borders of the Empire of Manchukuo resulted in border incidents and conflicts including two undeclared border wars. The first was the Battle of Lake Khasan / Changkufeng Incident in July 1938–August 1938 at the border between Manchuria and Russia. The second was the Battle of Nomonhan / Battle of Khalkhin Gol in May 1939–September 1939 at the border between Manchuria and Mongolia. Although both were considered Soviet victories, these conflicts spawned a neutrality pact between the USSR and Japan.

On April 13, 1941 the Soviet Union and Japan signed the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact (Japanese–Soviet Non-Aggression Pact) to ensure peace between the two nations for nearly the duration of World War II. On April 5, 1945 the Soviet Union renounced the pact, a clear signal of eminent hostility by the USSR.

On August 9, 1945 after midnight, the Soviet Union launched "Operation August Storm" attacking Manchuria. Until the official surrender of Japan on September 2, 1945, the Soviet Union captured territory in Manchuria, Sakhalin Island and Kurile Islands. Postwar, Russia turned over Manchuria to China and was granted former Japanese territory including Sakhalin Island and Kurile Islands.

Zabaykalsky Krai

Chita  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.
Borzya  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.
Dauriya (Tansbaikal)  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.

Khabarovsk Krai
Khabarovsk  located to the north of Mongolia and Manchuria.

Sakhalin Oblast (Сахалинская область)  includes Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands.
Kamchatka Krai (Камча́тский край)  located in the Far East includes the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Primorsky Krai (Maritime Province)  located in the Far East includes Vladivostok and Lake Khasan.

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Last Updated
September 22, 2019

 

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