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    Khalkhin Gol (Halhyn Gol, Khalkhin River, Halha River) Dornod Prov Mongolia
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Justin Taylan 2007

A freshwater river that begins in the southern reaches of the Greater Hsingan Mountain Range and flows to the northwest along the border between Mongolia and Manchuria (Manchukuo) and empties into Buyr Nuur. The smaller Khalastin Gol (Khailaastai, Holsten River) running roughly east to west meets the river at a confluence area. Nomonhan is to the east. In this area the Khalkhin Gol is approximately 50m wide and roughly 2m deep at 3.5km/hour with a sandy riverbed.

"Gol" is a Mongolian word for river. There are many spelling variations of this name. Mongolians spell the name as"Halhyn". Russians spell the river "Khalkhin" with other variations Khalkh, Khalkha, Khalkhyn". To the Japanese the river was known as "Halha". Other spellings include the US official gazetteers and US maps (ONC F-9, TPC F-9A) use "Halhin-Gol", or "Halhin-Gol". Thanks to Denys Voaden for additional information

Battle of Khalkhin Gol (Nomonhan Incident)
Known to the Soviets and Mongolia as the "Battle of Khalkhin Gol". Known to the Japanese as the "Nomonhan Incident". Mongolian: "Халхын голын байлдаан" In Russian "бой на реке Халхин-Гол".

In 1939, the border between Mongolia and Manchuria was disputed. The Mongolians claimed the border was east of Nomonhan, while the Manchukuaons Japanese claimed it was along the Khalkhin Gol (Khalkhin River).

After Mongolian cavalry crossed the Khalkhin Gol in May 1939, The Japanese responded by occupying the disputed area. An undeclared, small scale war escallated between the Soviet Union and Mongolia versus Japan and Manchuria during May - September 1939.

The battle climaxed during August, whe Soviets forces, commanded by General Georgy Zhukov counterattacked, encircling the Japanese, who suffered 18,000 lost and retreated to the original border line. As the Soviet Union planned to attack eastern Poland during September, no further fighting or territorial gains were made, and the border remained as the Soviet Union and Mongolia claimed it.

Kawamata Bridge
Located at the confulence spanning the Khalkhin Gol and Khailaastai (Holsten River).

Sumber (Halgol)
Small town built by the Russians postwar on the western bank of the Khalkhin Gol.

Japanese Studies on Manchuria: Volume XI Part 3 Book B, page 208

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Last Updated
August 25, 2018


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