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USN November 24, 1941
USN June 1942
Google Earth 2016
Midway Atoll is located in the North Pacific Ocean with a total land area of 2.4 square miles including Eastern Island separated by the entrance channel from Spit Island and Sand Island to the north is Sand Islet fringed by a coral reef that forms Midway Lagoon. The International Dateline is located 161 miles to the west. Hawaii is 1,385 miles to the southeast and Japan is 2,627 miles to the northwest. During the Pacific War, Midway was code named "Balsa" by the Americans and "AF" by the Japanese.
During April 1935, a Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) Sikorsky S-42 "Pan American Clipper" piloted by Captain Edwin Musick with a crew of five on a transpacific survey flight visited Midway Atoll to establish an aerial route linking Hawaii to Midway then onward to Wake, Guam and Manila.
To develop facilities at Midway, Pan Am mounted mounted two expeditions to Midway Atoll to establish facilities on Sand Island, the first "North Haven Expedition" in 1935 and the second "North Haven Expedition II" in 1936 using steamer SS North Haven traveling from San Francisco transporting construction materials, fuel and six months of supplies for the construction crew.
During 1939 the U. S. Navy (USN) contracted several construction firms, which formed Contractors Pacific Naval Air Base to build facilities for Naval Air Station Midway Islands (NAS Midway Islands) on Eastern Island and Sand Island. Work began on Eastern Island with the construction of Midway Airfield.
On February 14, 1941, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8682 that hestablished "Midway Island Naval Defensive Sea Area," which encompassed the territorial waters between the extreme high-water marks and the three-mile marine boundaries surrounding Midway. "Midway Island Naval Airspace Reservation" was also established to restrict access to the airspace over the naval defense sea area. Only U.S. government ships and aircraft were permitted to enter the naval defense areas at Midway Atoll unless authorized by the U. S. Navy.
On December 7, 1941 after learning of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Oahu, USS Lexington (CV-2) enroute to Midway with USMC SB2U-3 Vindicators from VMSB-231 for Midway Airfield aborted the delivery to search for the Japanese fleet instead. Between 9:31am to 9:54am, Midway Atoll was bombarded by Japanese destroyers Ushio and Sazanami that shelled Sand Island, killing four and damaging installations.
On March 10, 1942 H6K Mavis piloted by Lt. Hashizume attempts to photograph Midway. Over the target, shot down by F2A Buffalo.
Japanese missions against Midway Atoll
The Battle of Midway occurred between June 4-6, 1942 and was the second carrier engagement of the Pacific War after the Battle of the Coral Sea (May 4–8, 1942) without opposing ships making contact. Only carrier and land based aircraft attacked the opposing fleets. The Battle of Midway was a decisive American victory and a turning point in the Pacific War. The Japanese suffered four aircraft carriers sunk failed to capture Midway Atoll and were forced to withdraw.
On April 22, 1988 designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Navy (USN). On October 1, 1993 the U. S. Navy closed NAS Midway Islands. Between August 1996 until 2002 the general public could visit Midway Atoll.
On October 31, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 13022 that transfered transferred the jurisdiction and control of the atoll to the United States Department of the Interior, administered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). On September 13, 2000 designated the "Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and Battle of Midway National Memorial".
On June 15, 2006 President George W. Bush designated Midway part of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument. In 2007, renamed Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument administered by both the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the State of Hawaii. A visitor program began in March 2008 but was suspended in 2013 due to budget cuts.
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