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Guam Island is located in the Territory of Guam in the Southern Mariana Islands of the Mariana Island Group (Mariana Islands) is part of Micronesia in the Central Pacific. Also known simply as "Guam". Today, Guam Island is located in the Territory of Guam an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States of America (USA). Borders the Northern Mariana Islands / Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) to the north.
Discovered by the Spanish and claimed on January 26, 1565 and used as a port for galleons crossing the Pacific Ocean and built forts to defend the island. After the Spanish-American War, the U. S. occupied Guam as part of the terms of the Treaty of Paris. On June 20, 1898 U. S. Navy (USN) USS Charleston (C-2) under the command of Captain Henry Glass arrived to take possession of the island. Guam was transfered to the U. S. Navy on December 23, 1898 by President William McKinley. Between 1898 until 1941, Apra Harbor was an important American port vessels crossing the Pacific. During 1903 linked by telegraph cable telephone cable established by e Commercial Pacific Cable Company. In the 1930s, Pan American established Apra Harbor Seaplane Base to support Clipper flying on their trans-Pacific route from San Francisco-Manila-Hong Kong route.
On December 8, 1941 three hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Guam was attacked by Japanese aircraft. On December 10, 1941 Japanese forces made an amphibious landing on Guam and occupied the island until late July 1944.
By July 1944 Guam was occupied by approximately 19,000 Japanese personnel including the 31st Army Group, 29th Division (Southern Marianas Army Group) commanded by Lt. General Takashima plus Japanese Navy units. List of Japanese units on Guam. In early July 1944 the American aircraft and warships began a thirteen day bombardment against Guam.
On July 21, 1944 U. S. Marines from the 3rd Amphibious Corps and U. S. Army 77th Infantry Division lands on Guam. This became known as the "Second Battle of Guam" to distinguish it from the 1941 actions. Initially, the Japanese managed to contain the attackers on the two landing beach and launched a counterattack but failed to repulse the landing. Afterwards, the Marines renewed their assault. By August 10, 1944 U. S. forces reached the northern tip of the island securing Guam.
Afterwards, Guam was developed into a major base area with several airfields to support B-29 Superfortress operations against the Japan. Bypassed Japanese guerrilla activities continued until the end of the Pacific War.
During 1947, a war crimes trial was conducted on Guam prosecuted by USMC Colonel Presley M. Rixey to put on trail those responsible responsible for the execution of American Prisoners Of War (POW) on Chi Chi Jima. Found guilty, General Yoshio Tachibana who ordered the executions and Lt. Col. Kikuji Ito who executed a prisoner were both hanged and buried in unmarked graves on Guam.
Some Japanese holdouts remained on Guam. In January 1972, Sgt Soichi Yokoi was had been living alone in a cave was found and surrendered.
Guam Island Airfields and Seaplane Bases
Information Last Updated
July 21 1944
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