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    Guam Island Territory of Guam United States of America (USA)
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USN 1944


USN c1945
Location
Guam Island is located in the Territory of Guam in the Southern Mariana Islands of the Mariana Island Group (Mariana Islands) is part of Micronesia in the Central Pacific. Also known simply as "Guam". Today, Guam Island is located in the Territory of Guam an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States of America (USA). Borders the Northern Mariana Islands / Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) to the north.

Prewar
Discovered by the Spanish and claimed on January 26, 1565 and used as a port for galleons crossing the Pacific Ocean and built forts to defend the island. After the Spanish-American War, the U. S. occupied Guam as part of the terms of the Treaty of Paris. On June 20, 1898 U. S. Navy (USN) USS Charleston (C-2) under the command of Captain Henry Glass arrived to take possession of the island. Guam was transfered to the U. S. Navy on December 23, 1898 by President William McKinley. Between 1898 until 1941, Apra Harbor was an important American port vessels crossing the Pacific. During 1903 linked by telegraph cable telephone cable established by e Commercial Pacific Cable Company. In the 1930s, Pan American established Apra Harbor Seaplane Base to support Clipper flying on their trans-Pacific route from San Francisco-Manila-Hong Kong route.

Wartime History
On December 8, 1941 three hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Guam was attacked by Japanese aircraft. On December 10, 1941 Japanese forces made an amphibious landing on Guam and occupied the island until late July 1944.

By July 1944 Guam was occupied by approximately 19,000 Japanese personnel including the 31st Army Group, 29th Division (Southern Marianas Army Group) commanded by Lt. General Takashima plus Japanese Navy units. List of Japanese units on Guam. In early July 1944 the American aircraft and warships began a thirteen day bombardment against Guam.

On July 21, 1944 U. S. Marines from the 3rd Amphibious Corps and U. S. Army 77th Infantry Division lands on Guam. This became known as the "Second Battle of Guam" to distinguish it from the 1941 actions. Initially, the Japanese managed to contain the attackers on the two landing beach and launched a counterattack but failed to repulse the landing. Afterwards, the Marines renewed their assault. By August 10, 1944 U. S. forces reached the northern tip of the island securing Guam.

Afterwards, Guam was developed into a major base area with several airfields to support B-29 Superfortress operations against the Japan. Bypassed Japanese guerrilla activities continued until the end of the Pacific War.

Postwar
During 1947, a war crimes trial was conducted on Guam prosecuted by USMC Colonel Presley M. Rixey to put on trail those responsible responsible for the execution of American Prisoners Of War (POW) on Chi Chi Jima. Found guilty, General Yoshio Tachibana who ordered the executions and Lt. Col. Kikuji Ito who executed a prisoner were both hanged and buried in unmarked graves on Guam.

Some Japanese holdouts remained on Guam. In January 1972, Sgt Soichi Yokoi was had been living alone in a cave was found and surrendered.

Today
Guam is a poplar tourist destination primarily for both Japanese and South Korean tourists as it is only a three hour flight from both countries.

Guam Island Locations
Agana (Hagåtña, Hagatna)  located on the west coast of Guam
Agana Bay (Hagåtña, Hagatna)  located on the west coast of Guam Island landing by USMC July 21, 1944
Agat  located on the western coast of Guam Island landing by USMC July 21, 1944.
Agat Bay  located on the western coast of Guam Island south of Orote Point.
Asan  located on the western coast of Guam Island.
Apra Harbor  borders the western coast of Guam Island.
Orote Point (Orote Peninsula)  located on the western coast of Guam Island.
Sumay  located near Orote Point on Guam Island.
Tumon Bay  located on the western coast of Guam Island, 3rd Marine Division landings

Guam Island Airfields and Seaplane Bases
Agana Airfield (Antonio B. Won Pat Airport, Guam Airport)  located at the center of Guam, still in use today.
North Field (Andersen AFB)  located near Pati Point on the northeast end of Guam Island.
Orote Airfield (Orote Point)  located on Orote Point on the west coast of Guam Island.
Northwest Field  located at the northwest corner of Guam Island, now an auxiliary field for Andersen AFB.
Depot Field (Harmon Field)  located at the northwest corner of Guam Island.
Apra Harbor Seaplane Base  located in Apra Harbor on Guam Island.

Pati Point
Located on the northeastern coast of Guam.

Ritidian Point
Located on the northwest coast of Guam.

Piti Point
Japanese gun position at this location.

Yokoi's Cave
The home of one of the famous Japanese Holdouts on Guam. During late July 1944 until January 1972 Japanese Army Sergeant Soichi Yokoi hid in the jungle in this cave. Also know as Sgt Yokoi's Cave or simply Yokoi's Cave.

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Last Updated
August 6, 2019

 

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July 21 1944

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