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    Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia, Netherlands East Indies)  
Location
Indonesia is located in Southeast Asia between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Borders Australia to the south, Philippines to the north, Singapore, Vietnam and Palau and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India to the west and Papua New Guinea to the east. Prewar and during the Pacific War, a Dutch colony known as the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) and the western half of New Guinea known as Dutch New Guinea (DNG). Today officially known as the Republic of Indonesia.

Wartime History
During early January 1942, Japanese forces occupied Sulawesi (Celebes) and Timor. General Wavell, commanding the American, British, Dutch and Australian (ABDA) forces in South East Asia was ordered to move his headquarters to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) on February 25, 1942. News came of the imminent invasion by the Japanese 16th Army of Java, defended by only 30,000 troops under the Dutch General ter Poorten. After Allied forces lost the Battle of the Java Sea, the Allies began to pull out of Indoesia. On March 5th, the Dutch were obliged to evacuate Batavia, which was declared an "open city", and on March 9th the Dutch and Allied forces in Java surrendered. Most of Indoesia remained in Japanese hands for the duration of the war. After the war, the new Indoesian Air Force equipped itself with abandoned Japanese aircraft, and used them in the late 1940's against the Dutch.

Postwar
After the Pacific War, Indonesian leaders including Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence and fought a four and a half year struggle against the Dutch who were attempting to reestablish their colony. In December 1949 the Netherlands recognized Indonesia independence but retained control of Dutch New Guinea. In the years following, the Sukarno's government campaigned for Indonesian control of western New Guinea and with pressure from the United States, the Netherlands agreed to the New York Agreement which ceded Dutch New Guinea to Indonesia in May 1963.

Today
The Republic of Indonesia encompassed the entire area of the former Netherlands East Indies (NEI).

Indonesia Islands
Java (Jawa)  divided into four provinces and includes Jakarta, Yogyakarta.
Sumatra Island  part of the Greater Sunda Islands.
Moluccan Islands  includes Ceram and surrounding islands known as the "Spice Islands".
West Timor (Timor Barat)  western half of Timor, formally Portuguese, today Indonesian.
Sulawesi Island (Celebes)  located in the Sunda Islands.
Lombok Island  located to the east of Bali.
Bali Island  borders the Java Sea to the north and the Indian Ocean to the south.
Molucca Islands (Molucca Islands)  located between western New Guinea, Ceram and Celebes

Indonesia Bodies of Water
Java Sea  included the Battle of the Java Sea of February 27, 1942.
Sunda Strait  included the Battle of the Java Sea of February 27, 1942.
Strait of Malacca (Malacca Strait)  between the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra Island.
Timor Sea  located between Indonesia and East Timor to the north and Australia to the south.

Indonesia Provinces
East Kalimantan Province (Kalimantan Timur)  located on the eastern side of southern Borneo.
South Kalimantan Province (Kalimantan Timur)  located at the southeast tip of Borneo.
Central Kalimantan Province (Kalimantan Tengah)  located at the southern tip of Borneo.
West Kalimantan Province (Kalimantan Barat)  lodated at the southwest tip of Borneo.
North Maluku Province  northern Molucca Islands includes Morotai, Halmahera, Ternate, Wai Galela.
Maluku Province  located in the Molucca Islands including Seram (Ceram), Aru Islands, Kai Islands.
East Nusa Tenggara Province  located to the east of Bali and includes Lombok.
West Nusa Tenggara Province  located to the east of Bali and includes Lombok.
Bali Province  encompasses Bali Island.
Papua Province (Irian Jaya)  located on western New Guinea bordering Papua New Guinea (PNG).
West Papua Province (West Irian Jaya)  located on western New Guinea.
East Nusa Tenggara Province (Nusa Tenggara Timur)  includes West Timor and part of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Riau Islands Province  includes 1,796 islands between the Malacca Strait, Karimata Strait and South China Sea

Indonesian Borneo
Indonesian Borneo  southern portion of Borneo Island
East Kalimantan Province (Kalimantan Timur)  located on the eastern side of southern Borneo.
South Kalimantan Province (Kalimantan Timur)  located at the southeast tip of Borneo
Central Kalimantan Province (Kalimantan Tengah)  located at the southern tip of Borneo
West Kalimantan Province (Kalimantan Barat)  lodated at the southwest tip of Borneo

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Last Updated
January 18, 2020

 

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