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    Taiwan (Formosa)  Republic of China (ROC)

Location
Taiwan Island is part of the Republic of China (ROC). Also known simply as Taiwan. Divided into three regions: Northern Taiwan, Central Taiwan and Southern Taiwan. The national capital is Taipei.

Borders the Taiwan Strait (Formosa Strait) to the west and the mainland of China, the East China Sea to the north, Philippine Sea to the east and the Luzon Strait to the south, Bashi Channel and the South China Sea to the southeast. Known as Formosa during the Pacific War. China refers to Taiwan Island as Taiwan Province, Taiwan Region or Taiwan Area but has never administered the island.

Wartime History
During the First Sino-Japanese War, after the 1875 Kangwha Island Incident, Japan defeated the Chinese Qing Dynasty forces. Under the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, Taiwan became a colony of Japan with Taihoku as the capital.

Formosan people were impressed into military service or labored for the Japanese. The Takasago Giyutai (Taiwan Battalion) were Taiwanese natives who volunteered to join the Japanese Army and were known for their jungle craft and capabilities as scouts and served in New Guinea and other locations.

During the Japanese colonial era, Formosa produced sugar and rice crops that were exported to Japan. Taiwan factories refined one tenth of the aluminum used by Japan. During the war, many of the prewar sugar mills were converted to produce butanol (butyl alcohol) for use aviation gasoline. Formosa was developed with approximately fifty wartime airfields. Towards the end of the war, it came under air attack from Allied aircraft, but was never invaded.

Northern Taiwan
Taipei 臺北市 (Taipei City, Taihoku)  national capital of the Republic of China in northern central Taiwan.
Keelung (Jilong, Kirun, Kiirun)  located at the northern tip of Taiwan.

Western Taiwan Region
Changhua 彰化市 (Zhanghua, Shoka)  located inland from the western coast of Taiwan.
Huwei 虎尾鎮 (Hu-wei, Kobi)  located inland from the western coast of Taiwan.

Southern Taiwan Region
Kaohsiung 高雄市 (Takao, Takow, Takau, Kaohsiung)  special municipality on the southwest coast of Taiwan.
Taitung (Taito)  located on the southeastern coast of Taiwan.
Chiayi 嘉義市 (Kagi)  located in central Taiwan.
Kaohsiung (Takao, Takow, Takau)  special municipality located on the southwest coast of Taiwan.
Pingtung 屏東市 (Chosu)  located on the southern coast of Taiwan.
Tainan 臺南市 (T’ai-nan)  located on the southwest coast of Taiwan.
Liuying (Shenei)  located inland from the southwest coast of Taiwan.

Taiwan (Formosa) Airfields and Seaplane Bases
Aren Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Byoritsu Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Einansho Airfield (Einansho Air Depot)  used by the Japanese.
Ensui Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Giran Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Heito Airfield
  used by the Japanese.
Kagi Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Karenko Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Koryu Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Koshun Airfield used by the Japanese possibly as an emergency airfield.
Matsuyama Airfield Taihoku Airfield (Chaing Kai Shek Airport, Taoyuan International Airport)  used by the Japanese.
Nonara Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Okayama Airfield (Gangshan Air Base)  located near Kaohsiung.
Ryutan Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Shinchiku Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Taichu Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Taien Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Taihoku Airfield (Chaing Kai Shek Airport, Taoyuan International Airport)
Taipei Songshan Airport (Taipei International Airport)
Tainan Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Takao Airfield (Kaohsiung Airport)  used by the Japanese.
Takao Seaplane Base (Kaohsiung) used by the Japanese.
Toko Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Toshein Airfield  used by the Japanese.
Toyohara Airfield  used by the Japanese.

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Last Updated
October 16, 2018

 

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