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China is located in central Asia. Borders the Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea and Gulf of Tonking (Tonkin Gulf, Tongking Gulf). To the southeast is Hong Kong and Taiwan Island (Formosa). To the north, the Chinese mainland borders Mongolia and Russia and North Korea. To the south, the Chinese mainland borders Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma) in Southeast Asia plus India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan and Pakistan. To the west borders Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia. Today known as the People's Republic of China (PRC).
China was at war with Japan during the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) concurrent with the Pacific War. During the wars, the Japanese occupied the strategic coastal areas and after the Manchurian Incident (Mukden Incident) in 1931 created the puppet state of Manchuria (Manchukuo) in northern China.
During the Pacific War (1941-1945) China was an Allied nation that was supported by the United States and was a strategic area for Allied airfields and bases. The Japanese occupied areas of China until the end of the Pacific War and official surrender of Japan.
At the end of World War II, Chinese Nationalist forces briefly used captured or surrendered Japanese aircraft. Chinese Communist forces were given captured Japanese equipment by the Soviet Union, against the terms of the Japanese surrender. Without their own pilots, the Communists used former Japanese and Manchukuoans in their Air Force. Former Japanese planes served with both air forces into the late 1940s and possibly early 1950s.
People's Republic of China Municipalities (PRC Municipalities)
Beijing 北京市 (Beiping, Pei-p'ing, Peking) national capital of China, Beijing Municipality.
Tientsin 天津市 (Tsiangtsin, Tianjin) located in northern China at the mouth of the Yangtze River.
Shanghai 上海市 located on the eastern coast of China.
Chongqing 重庆市 located in central China intersected by the Jialing River and Yangtze River.
People's Republic of China Provinces
Yunnan Province 云南省 located in the south center of China provincial capital is Kunming.
Hainan Province 海南省 includes Hainan Island off the southern coast of China, smallest province in China.
Szechuan Province 四川省 (Sichuan, Szechwan, Szechuan) located in southwest center of China.
Guizhou Province 贵州省 (Kweichow) located at the south center of China.
Guangdong Province 广东省 located on the southeast coast of China, provincial capital is Guangzhou (Canton).
Jiangsu Province 江苏省 located in central China, provincial capital Nanking (Nanjing).
Jiangxi Province 江西省 located in south central China, provincial capital is Nanchang.
Hubei Province 湖北省 located in central China.
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region located in southern China, provincial capital Nanning.
Hunan Province 湖南省 located in central China.
Gansu Province 甘肃 located in the northwest of China with Lanzhou is the provincial capital.
Shandong Province located in eastern China.
Shanxi Province located in Manchuria.
Shaanxi Province located in Manchuria.
Gansu Province located in Manchuria.
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Hong Kong island located to the southeast of mainland China.
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (NMAR) located in northern China.
Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region located in Manchuria.
Manchuria (Empire of Manchukuo) area of northern China Japanese puppet state 1931–1945.
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