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  USS Princeton CVL-23
USN
Independence Class Light Carrier



Ship History
Laid down as Tallahassee (CL-61) by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey, 2 June 1941, reclassified CV-23 on 16 February 1942, renamed USS Princeton 31 March 1942, launched 18 October 1942 and commissioned at Philadelphia 25 February 1943, Captain George R. Henderson in command.

Wartime History
Following shakedown in the Caribbean, and reclassification to CVL-23 on 15 July 1943, Princeton, with Air Group 23 embarked, got underway for the Pacific. Arriving at Pearl Harbor 9 August, she sortied with TF 11 on the 25th and headed for Baker Island. There she served as flagship, TG 11.2 and provided air cover during the occupation of the island and the construction of an airfield there, 1 September–14 September. During that time her planes downed an H8K2 Emily and, more important, furnished the fleet with photographs of them.

Afterwards, Princeton rendezvoused with TF 15, conducted strikes against enemy installations on Makin and Tarawa, then headed back to Pearl Harbor. In mid-October departed for Espiritu Santo and joined Task Force 38 (TF 38) on October 20, 1943.

Operation Shoestring 2
As part of "Operation Shoestring 2", Task Force 38 USS Princeton and USS Saratoga, sent their planes against Buka Airfield and Bonis Airfield, to cover the landings at Torokina. The Task Force within 13 miles south east of the island that the airfields were almost visible from the ships. Lost during the two days of attacks are: F6F Hellcat 25814, F6F Hellcat 66021, TBF Avenger 24071 and TBF Avenger 24176.

On November 5th and 11th her planes attacked Rabaul and on the 19th, with TF 50, helped neutralize Nauru Airfield. Princeton then steamed northeast, covered the garrison groups en route to Makin and Tarawa and, after exchanging operational aircraft for damaged planes from other carriers, got underway for Pearl Harbor and the west coast.

Availability at Bremerton, Washington followed and on 3 January 1944, Princeton steamed west. At Pearl Harbor, she rejoined the fast carriers of TF 50, now designated TF 58. On the 19th, she sortied with TG 58.4 for strikes at Wotje and Taroa (29 January–31 January) to support amphibious operations against Kwajalein and Majuro. Her planes photographed the next assault target, Eniwetok, 2 February and on the 3rd returned on a more destructive assignment - the demolition of the airfield on Engebi. For 3 days the atoll was bombed and strafed. On the 7th, Princeton retired to Kwajalein only to return to Eniwetok on the 10th-13th and 16th-28th, when her planes softened the beaches for the invasion force, then provided air cover during the assault and ensuing fight.

From Eniwetok, Princeton retired to Majuro, thence to Espiritu Santo for replenishment. On 23 March, she got underway for strikes against enemy installation and shipping in the Carolines. After striking the Palaus, Woleai and Yap, the force replenished at Majuro and sortied again 13 April. Steaming to New Guinea, the carriers provided air cover for attack at Hollandia from April 21 - 29, then crossed back over the International Date Line to raid Truk (29 April–30 April) and Ponape (1 May).

On 11 May, Princeton returned to Pearl Harbor only to depart again on the 29th for Majuro. There she rejoined the fast carriers and pointed her bow toward the Marianas to support the assault on Saipan. From 11 June–18 June, she sent her planes against targets on Guam, Rota, Tinian, Pagan, and Saipan, then steamed west to intercept a Japanese fleet reported to be en route from the Philippines to the Marianas. In the ensuing Battle of the Philippine Sea, Princeton's planes contributed 30 kills and her guns another 3, plus 1 assist, to the devastating toll inflicted on Japan's naval air arm.

Returning to the Marianas, Princeton again struck Pagan, Rota and Guam, then replenished at Eniwetok. On 14 July, she got underway again as the fast carriers returned their squadrons to the Marianas to furnish air cover for the assault and occupation of Guam and Tinian. On 2 August, the force returned to Eniwetok, replenished, then sailed for the Philippines. En route, its planes raided the Palaus, then on 9 September–10 September, struck airfields on northern Mindanao. On the 11th, they pounded the Visayas. At mid-month the force moved back over the Pacific chessboard to support the Palau offensive, then returned to the Philippines to hit Luzon, concentrating on Clark and Nichols fields. The force then retired to Ulithi, and in early October, bombed and strafed enemy airfields, installations and shipping in the Nansei Shoto and Formosa area in preparation for the invasion of the Philippines.

Battle of Leyte Gulf
On October 20th, landings were made at Dulag and San Pedro Bay, Leyte. Princeton, in TG 38.3, cruised off Luzon and sent her planes against airfields there to prevent Japanese land based aircraft attacks on Allied ships massed in Leyte Gulf.

Sinking History
On October 24, 1944, enemy aircraft that took off from Clark Field and Nichols Field located TG 38.3. Shortly before 1000, a lone enemy dive bomber came out of the clouds above Princeton. At 1,500' the pilot released his bomb. It hit between the elevators, crashed through the flight deck and hangar, then exploded. Initial fires soon expanded as further explosions sent black smoke rolling off the flight deck and red flames along the sides from the island to the stern. Covering vessels provided rescue and fire-fighting assistance and shielded the stricken carrier from further attack.

The USS Irwin (DD-794) went alongside the burning carrier to port. In a heroic saga that brought Irwin the award of the Navy Unit Commendation, she braved raging flames, violent explosions, falling debris, and exploding shells as she went alongside Princeton. Fighting dense black smoke in a choppy sea, she rigged hoses and fought fires in the forward part of Princeton’s hangar deck.

At 1524, another, much heavier explosion, possibly the bomb magazine, blew off the carrier's stern and with it the after flight deck. The cruiser Birmingham (CL-62), who also came alongside to fight fires, suffered heavy damage and casualties. Irwin immediately dispatched boats and her men dived into icy seas to rescue survivors. Though damaged herself, the destroyer stood at close quarters until she had rescued 646 men from the sea and from the decks of Princeton. the carrier's 646 crew were packed like sardines on the small destroyer's decks.

Efforts to save Princeton continued, but at 1604 the fires won. Boats were requested to take off remaining personnel and shortly after 1706, Irwin (DD-794) began to fire torpedoes at the burning hulk. At 1746, after the Irwin's torpedoes turned around and chased the Irwin, the Reno (CL-96) relieved Irwin and at 1749 the last, and biggest, explosion occurred. Flames and debris shot up 1000-2000 feet. Princeton's forward section was gone. Her after section appeared momentarily through the smoke. By 1750 she had disappeared and sunk. 10 officers and 98 enlisted men were lost in the attack the aftermath, but 1,361 of her crew survived. R. Gallatin, 19 years old at the time recalled: "In a way, it was a miracle that so many men could be saved as well as myself. The ship was a burning inferno!"

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Last Updated
August 27, 2014

 

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