Lat 14° 35' 60N Long 120° 58' 0E Located in the Intramuros District of central Manila. Borders the Pasig River to the north. Intramuros means "within the walls" in Latin. Also popularly known as "The Walled City".
Built by the Spanish, construction began in 1589. The fortress was surrounded
by a moat and twenty foot high
outer wall enclosing 64 hectares of land inside.
Prior to the war, Intramuros was used as the headquarters
of General MacArthur's offices for the US Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), at No. 1 Victoria Street, until abandoned after the Japanese attacks on Luzon.
During the Battle of Manila, Japanese defenders made a final fanatical defense of Intramuros
against the US Army. Civilians including clergy and nuns were used as hostages. On
February 21, 1945 American forces bombarded the 40' thick outer
walls of Intramuros. It was hoped the outer wall could be penetrated,
without bombing the historic structure from the air. Most
of Intramuros was damaged or destroyed during the battle.
Postwar, Intramuros was slowly reconstructed
by the Philippine military and funds from civic groups. A popular tourist for visitors to Manila. Intramuros is the most prominent Spanish
era structure in Manila. Nearly
every building and street corner has a plaque related to its history,
and damage during the war. The location is geared towards general tourism,
although several relics, memorials and locations are part of World War II history as well.
Located in the Plaza de Santa Isabel, on
the corner of General Luna and Anda Streets. This memorial was dedicated
in 1995. The statue commemorates St. Isabel caring for wounded during
the battle of Intramuros.
Puerta de Santa Lucia
Facing Malecon Drive, this
is the entrance to Intramuros, built in 1603. The gate was destroyed
during the battle for Manila to allow American tanks to enter Intramuros.
Its side chambers were restored in 1968, and the gate in 1982.
Today, it is passable for foot traffic and storage of Spanish era
related artifacts for festivals.
Church of San Agustin
The oldest stone church in the Philippines, built
from 1586 - 1607. After the Spanish-American War, the terms for
the American occupation
of Manila were prepared in the vestry of the church in 1898. In
1993, it was chosen as a UNESCO world heritage site.
for the Clergy & Civilians Killed
the church's crypt, there is a memorial and plaque to honor the
civilians and clergy killed by the Japanese during the fighting
Intramuros on February 10, 1945.
Cuartel De Santa Lucia
(Santa Lucia Barracks)
Built in 1781 as Cuartel de la artilleria
de montana. Used as a barracks for the Philippine Constabulary
beginning in 1901, then officer's school in 1905 until the school
transferred to Baguio in 1908. Destroyed during the fighting during
1945, the remaining walls were used to reconstruct the barracks.
No 1 Victoria Street
Former location of the headquarters
of General MacArthur's US Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE). Popularly
known as No 1 Victoria Street for its address in Intramuros and Reducto
San Pedro. Abandoned during the retreat of Filipino and American
forces after the Japanese landings. Used as a barracks by the Japanese
during occupation. Destroyed during the battle of Manila in
1945. Today, a plaque stands at the location, and a pair of statues
representing a seated MacArthur and Filipino in discussion.
San Diego Bastion (Barbette San Diego, Bastion de San Diego)
Located at the corner of Intramuros, built by the Spanish. This fortification is shaped like the 'ace of spades' and used as a foundry. During
World War II, this structure was mostly destroyed. Today, it remains as
120mm Dual Purpose Gun (Type 10)
Emplaced in the wall of
Intramuros, still in situ today
120mm Dual Purpose Gun (Type 10)
Emplaced in the grass area outside Intramuros
Polverin (Power Magazine)
Located near San Diego Bastion in Intramuros. Used by the Spanish for gunpowder storage for Intramuros. Later, gunpowder was moved to Fort San Antonio Abad for safety reasons.
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January 8, 2014